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The lifestyles of plant pathogenic fungi are highly diverse and utilize distinct strategies to interact with the host plant.
For example, necrotrophic fungi infect and kill host tissue and extract nutrients from dead host cells.
These components are usually exposed and are referred to as eceptors (PRRs), which initiates the first reaction of defense called PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) (Jones and Dangl, 2006; Koeck et al., 2011).
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the flagellin receptor, FLS2, a leucine rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinase, recognizes the highly conserved N-terminus of bacterial flagellin (flg22) and activates the MAP kinase pathway to induce expression of defense response genes (Gomez-Gomez and Boller, 2002).
Effectors that elicit an ETI response can be recognized by plant resistance proteins (R proteins), which are intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors (Cui et al., 2015).
Recognition of effector proteins via NLR receptors occurs through direct (receptor-mediated binding) or indirect (accessory protein-mediated) interactions (Dodds and Rathjen, 2010; Cui et al., 2015).
In addition, a majority of cognate plant R-proteins associated with a specific Avr have also been identified (Stergiopoulos and de Wit, 2009; Gururania et al., 2012; Ali et al., 2014).
Biotrophic fungi colonize living host tissue and obtain nutrients from living tissue; whereas hemibiotrophic fungi display two phases during the infection process; first is an initial biotrophic phase followed by a necrotrophic stage (Lo Presti et al., 2015). doi: 10.1016/S1360-1385(02)02261-6 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Gonzalez-Fernandez, R.
Despite the diversity among these lifestyles, all fungi that colonize plants are recognized by the plant innate immune system, which elicits a host defense response. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2996 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Godfrey, D., Bohlenius, H., Pedersen, C., Zhang, Z., Emmersen, J., and Thordal-Christensen, H. Powdery mildew fungal effector candidates share N-terminal Y/F/Wx C-motif. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-317 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Gomez-Gomez, L., and Boller, T. Flagellin perception: a paradigm for innate immunity.
The innate immune perception triggers both local and systemic reactions, allowing a plant to respond to pathogen attack in a quick and localized manner over an extended period of time (Schwessinger and Ronald, 2012).
For this reason, the plant utilizes a two-tier innate immune response that involves a combination of localized plasma membrane and intracellular receptors (Jones and Dangl, 2006; Dodds and Rathjen, 2010; Asai and Shirasu, 2015). Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.